The region of Piedmont (ital. Piemonte) with the capital Turin is located in the extreme northwest of Italy. With a land area of over 25,000 km², it is the second largest after Sicily. The beginnings of viticulture go back to the Celtic people of the Taurines (who gave the capital its name) and to the Ligurians. The Romans already knew Piedmontese wines (from Gattinara, among others), but the universal scholar and wine author Pliny the Elder (23-79) does not mention a single one in his list of the best wines of antiquity. It was not until the Middle Ages that the wines produced mainly by monasteries became known from here, when minstrels praised their excellent quality. The western part became the Mark of Turin in the 11th century and this came under Savoy's rule by marriage. Piedmont, and with it the viticulture, was under French influence for many centuries. In the middle of the 13th century the name "Piedmont" was used for the first time, which is derived from the French Pié de monte (at the foot of the mountains). The Piedmontese vineyards are mostly located at the foot of the Alps and Apennines on both sides of the wide upper Po valley. It was not until 1815 that Piedmont was annexed to the Kingdom of Sardinia and finally joined the United Kingdom of Italy in 1861.
Apart from the region of Tuscany, Piedmont produces the most top wines in Italy, and with this region, it knights for the first place as a top wine region. Over three-quarters of the production is red wines. Above all, the DOCG red wines Barbaresco and Barolo from the Nebbiolo grape, pressed by certain producers, are the basis of the fame. There was still French influence in these as well, because the "father" of these two wines was the French oenologist Louis Oudart. In modern times, the three famous winemakers Angelo Gaja, Bruno Giacosa and Giacomo Bologna did important development work on his Braida estate. Piedmont plays a leading role in many respects. It is here that the largest volume of sparkling wine is produced. The region is also the wormwood of Italy and the world, it is here that this wine was "invented". And Piedmont also has the most quality wine areas with 42 DOC and 16 DOCG zones (there are no IGT zones):