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Description to Germany

The Federal Republic of Germany in Central Europe with its capital Berlin was formed in its current form through the reunification with the GDR, which was founded in 1949, in 1990. It covers 357,588 km² and is divided into 16 federal states. Starting clockwise in the north, Germany borders the nine states of Denmark, Poland, the Czech Republic, Austria, Switzerland, France, Luxembourg, Belgium and the Netherlands, as well as the North Sea and Baltic Sea in the north. Almost two thirds of the vineyards are located in the south-west of the state in the valleys of the Rhine and Moselle rivers and their tributaries. The federal state of Rhineland-Palatinate is home to 6 of the 13 growing regions. The rest are in the south.

Deutsc hland - Landkarte, Flagge und Wappen


Germany has a wine culture dating back over two thousand years. But imported wine was already being drunk before that, as evidenced by a Greek clay wine bottle from around 400 BC found in a Celtic grave. The oldest vineyards were located on the banks of the Rhine, Neckar and Moselle rivers. These rivers with their elongated valleys and tributaries are still the classic wine-growing areas today, often with steeply terraced slopes along their banks. Like all bodies of water, they have a positive influence on viticulture due to their climate-regulating effect.

Viticulture was established by the colonisation of Gaul by the Greeks and then perfected by Roman culture. The conquest of Gaul by Julius Caesar (100-44 BC) brought Roman viticulture from the Rhône valley to the Rhine. Emperor Probus (232-282) contributed to the further expansion of the vineyards through his supportive measures. In the 5th century, viticulture was already so widespread in what is now Germany that Clovis (466-511) issued the "Lex Salica"(Salic Law), in which the theft of a vine was made a punishable offence.

Middle Ages

In the 6th and 7th centuries, viticulture spread to southern and northern Germany. The Frankish King Dagobert I (610-639) is documented as a donor of vineyards to churches and monasteries. Wine-growing in the Palatinate is documented in a document by King Siegbert III from the year 653 and in the 8th century, well over a hundred wine-growing communities are mentioned in the Palatinate. Emperor Charlemagne (742-814) provided important impetus, as he had dense forests cleared and planted with vines from Hungary, Italy, Spain, Lorraine and the French Champagne region. He enacted the first laws and authorised the sale of home-grown wine in wine taverns.

The Cistercians, who founded thousands of monasteries in Europe and were professionally involved in vineyard management, grape variety selection and winemaking, had a decisive influence on cultivated viticulture. Twelve monks from Burgundy founded the famous Eberbach monastery in the Rheingau in 1136. Over the next 100 years, 200 settlements were established along the Rhine between Worms and Cologne. In the 12th and 13th centuries, the monastery and its offshoots were, so to speak, the largest wine-growing enterprise in the world. Initially, the monks planted vines brought from Burgundy, mainly red wine varieties. However, they soon realised that white wine varieties thrived best in the Rheingau.

Medieval warm period

In the High Middle Ages (1050-1250), due to the effects of the Medieval Warm Period, the cultivation boundaries reached around 200 metres higher than today, so that agriculture and viticulture expanded considerably. The largest area under vines was then reached in the 15th century with around 400,000 hectares (around four times as much as today). At that time, however, Alsace also included extensive vineyards. However, the vineyards were mainly located in low-lying flat areas due to the clearing of heavily forested areas in northern Franconia. The Thirty Years' War (1618-1648) left behind destruction on an apocalyptic scale, as in the rest of Europe, from which German viticulture only recovered very slowly.

Many formerly flourishing wine regions such as Bavaria, northern, eastern and central Germany were no longer planted with vines. However, the emergence of beer as a mass-produced beverage also took its toll on viticulture. Wine became increasingly scarce and expensive. In 1653, a bottle of Rhine wine (1,200 litres) could still be bought for 300 gold thalers, a few years later for 500 gold thalers.

Little ice age

The effects of the Little Ice Age (1450-1850), with particularly cold periods from 1570 to 1630 and 1675 to 1715, led to further setbacks with cold spells and many failed harvests as a result. Despite this, viticulture picked up again from the beginning of the 18th century. Due to the secularisation of the monasteries at the beginning of the 19th century, it was mainly aristocrats who took the place of the monks, to whom the current standard is owed. Quality began to play a major role. In this context, the Prussian vineyard classification was introduced in 1868 and 1897. From the beginning of the 1860s, Germany was plagued by phylloxera and mildew, which in turn led to severe devastation.

French revolutionary wars

During the French Revolutionary Wars (1792-1815), wine-growing domains, most of which were owned by the state, were created from church property that had been secularised under Napoleon (1769-1821). The aim of these "model/training vineyards" was, and in some cases still is, to spread modern winegrowing production methods. This was done by trialling new methods in the vineyard, as well as producing and distributing grafted vines. In 1892, the first wine law was introduced, which still permitted controlled sugaring, among other things. In the first half of the 20th century, there was a major recession due to the two world wars and the vineyard area shrank to less than 50,000 hectares by 1945. Wine trade exports reached an all-time low. From the 1950s onwards, a positive change took place.

Wine-growing areas

The German wine-growing regions are among the most northerly in the world and are therefore located on the border between the warm and humid Gulf Stream climate in the west and the dry continental climate in the east. Due to the widely scattered vineyards, the soils, some of which are very different, consist of basalt, red sandstone, rock, loess, shell limestone, porphyry, slate and volcanic rock. The best conditions for viticulture are provided by south or south-west facing slopes in sheltered valleys, such as along the Rhine and its tributaries or along the Elbe, Saale and Unstrut rivers.


There are 13 growing regions with 43 areas, 167 large vineyards and 2,658 individual vineyards - only here may the designation quality wine be used. They are mainly concentrated in the south-west in the valleys of the Rhine and Moselle and their numerous tributaries. In the south, they are more loosely scattered in the landscape. Following reunification in 1990, the growing regions of Saxony and Saale-Unstrut were added in the east. Outside the growing regions, there are 56 hectares in Bavaria, Brandenburg, Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania and Schleswig-Holstein. These wines may only be marketed as Landwein.

With the exception of Ahr, Nahe and Rheingau, the growing regions are divided into two or more areas. The areas are divided into large vineyards.

This comprises several neighbouring, but not necessarily adjacent, individual vineyards. This Großlage usually bears the name of the formerly most famous single vineyard (before the reduction). However, it is not clear from the information on the label whether it is a single vineyard or a Großlage.

single vineyard
The individual vineyards are rarely less than five hectares in size. They range from less than one to 200 and some even up to 400 hectares. Over the centuries, around 30,000 vineyard names have developed, often with just a few rows of vines. These were greatly reduced by the 1970 wine law and the 1971 land consolidation.

Cadastral location
The smallest geographical origin-protected unit. Since 2014, any winery can apply to have vineyards entered in the cadastre defined as cadastral vineyards, which can be indicated on the label.

Country wine regions

This quality level was introduced in 1982. There are 26 Land wine regions, most of which lie within the wine-growing areas. These are Ahrtaler LW, Badischer LW, Bayrischer-Bodensee LW, Brandenburger LW, LW Main (formerly Fränkischer LW), LW der Mosel, LW Neckar, LW Oberrhein, LW Rhein, LW Rhein-Neckar, LW der Ruwer, LW der Saar, Mecklenburger LW, Mitteldeutscher LW, Nahegauer LW, Pfälzer LW, Regensburger LW, Rheinburgen LW, Rheingauer LW, Rheinischer LW, Saarländischer LW, Sächsischer LW, Schleswig-Holsteiner LW, Schwäbischer LW, Starkenburger LW and Taubertäler LW.

Karte mit den 13 Anbaugebieten Deutschlands

Cultivation areas

With only one exception, Germany's wine-growing regions are located in European wine-growing zone A; only the Baden wine-growing region (like Austria) belongs to wine-growing zone B. In 1972 there were still over 100,000 wine-growing businesses, but since then there has been continuous structural change and an enormous reduction to 42,000. The 16,827 businesses in the table are only those with 0.5 hectares or more of vineyards. Around 4,300 businesses, or around a quarter, cultivate less than one hectare of vines.

Around 3,100 wineries cultivate more than 10 hectares of vineyards, of which 890 cultivate more than 20 hectares. These cover more than 60% of the total area in Germany. The average farm size grew from 4.8 to 5.9 hectares. Exports account for around 25%, with the traditional buyers being the UK, USA, Netherlands and Japan.










Ahr 1 1 43 157 563 17,1 82,9 557
Baden 9 15 315 4.111 15.828 59.5 40,5 15.836
Swiss francs 3 23 216 1.635 6.130 81,9 18,1 6.104
Hessian mountain road 2 3 23 70 467 79,2 20,8 427
Middle Rhine 2 11 111 115 470 85,1 14,9 458
Moselle 6 19 524 2.116 8.798 90,5 9,5 8.976
Near 1 7 328 484 4.237 76,0 24,0 4.163
Palatinate 2 25 325 2.287 23.554 65,3 34,7 23.467
Rheingau 1 11 123 383 3.211 85,6 14,4 3.062
Rhine-Hesse 3 24 434 2.348 26.758 71,2 28,8 26.480
Saale-Unstrut 3 4 37 92 786 74,2 25,8 704
Saxony 2 4 23 83 501 82,2 17,8 461
Württemberg 6 17 207 2.946 11.461 31,8 68,2 11.435
Remaining areas (country wine),
z. e.g. Brandenburg
- - - 90 56 - - -
TOTAL 40 164 2.709 16.827 102.874 66,5 33,5 102.186

Grape varieties and vineyards

In 2022, the vineyards covered 117,804 hectares of vineyards and the wine production volume was 8.94 million hectolitres. Around 140 grape varieties are authorised, but only around a dozen of these have market significance. Many new grape varieties have been introduced in the last ten years, most of which are PIWI varieties. The trend towards red wine varieties in all growing regions has now peaked and is declining slightly.

White wine varieties account for 68.5% and red wine varieties for 31.5%. The most common grape variety with a continuing upward trend is still Riesling, which accounts for over a fifth of the total, followed by Müller-Thurgau and Pinot Noir. The climbers are Pinot varieties Chardonnay, Pinot Gris and Pinot Blanc as well as Sauvignon Blanc, the relegated Müller-Thurgau, Kerner and Blauer Portugieser. The grape variety index in 2018:

Grape variety
German Main name

In Germany
common synonyms





Riesling White Riesling, Rhine Riesling white 23.960 23,3 22.580
Müller-Thurgau Rivaner, Riesling-Silvaner white 12.057 11,7 13.628
Pinot Noir incl. Samtrot Pinot Noir, Blauer S., Pinot Noir red 11.762 11,4 11.733
Dornfelder - red 7.581 7,4 8.000
Ruländer Pinot Gris, Pinot Gris white 6.713 6,5 4.517
Pinot Blanc Pinot Blanc, Pinot Blanc white 5.540 5,4 3.941
Grüner Silvaner Silvaner, Sylvaner white 4.744 4,6 5.187
Portugieser Blue Portugieser red 2.799 2,7 4.202
Kerner Kerner grape white 2.463 2,4 3.584
Trollinger Blue Trollinger, Schiava Grossa red 2.172 2,1 2.431
Chardonnay - white 2.100 2,0 1.228
Limberger/Lemberger Blaufränkisch, Blauer Limberger red 1.912 1,9 1.747
Müllerrebe Black Riesling, Pinot Meunier red 1.910 1,9 2.303
Regent - red 1.784 1,7 2.122
Bacchus Early Scheurebe white 1.667 1,6 1.977
Scheurebe Seedling 88 white 1.412 1,4 1.655
Sauvignon Blanc Muscat Sylvaner white 1.324 1,3 516
White Gutedel Chasselas, Gutedel white 1.121 1,1 1.132
Red Traminer Traminer / Gewürztraminer white 1.057 1,1 838
Merlot - red 696 0,7 469
Saint Laurent St. Laurent, Blue St. Laurent red 618 0,6 657
White Elbling Elbling, Kleinberger white 493 0,5 567
Acolon - red 461 0,5 482
Ortega - white 440 0,4 622
Huxelrebe - white 424 0,4 613
Yellow Muscat Muscat / Muscat Blanc white 423 0,4 190
Cabernet Sauvignon - red 399 0,4 295
Domina - red 366 0,4 405
Morio-Muscat Morio white 361 0,4 488
Cabernet Mitos - red 300 0,3 320
Faberrebe - white 270 0,3 551
Cabernet Dorsa - red 263 0,3 234
Auxerrois Small Heunisch white 267 0,3 190
Dark field - red 227 0,2 341
Frühburgunder Blue Pinot Noir, Clevner red 241 0,2 256
Solaris - white 160 0,2 66
Cabernet Blanc - white 158 0,2 0
St John - white 124 0,1 77
Blauer Zweigelt Zweigelt, Rotburger red 114 0,1 100
Muscat Trollinger Trollinger-Muscat, Muscat d'Hamburg red 113 0,1 65
Herald vine - red 97 0,1 147
Syrah Shiraz red 79 0,1 27
Cabernet Franc - red 76 0,1 16
Rieslaner Mainriesling white 76 0,1 87
Siegerrebe - white 75 0,1 102
Cabernet Cubin - red 62 0,1 59
Muscaris - white 58 0,1 0
Seasoning - white 51 0,1 0
Dakapo - red 50 0,1 58
Nobling - white 50 0,1 61
Souvignier Gris - white 50 0,1 0
Phoenix - white 48 0,1 48
Cabernet Cortis - red 46 0,1 28
Reichensteiner - white 43 0,1 100
Ehrenfelser - white 39 0,1 85
Gold Muscat - white 39 0,1 0
Cabernet Dorio - red 30 - 37
Blauer Silvaner - white 29 - 38
Grüner Veltliner White plum white 29 - 7
Goldriesling (1) Gelbriesling, Goldmuskat white 28 - 21
Viognier - white 26 - 0
Chancellor - white 25 - 33
Bouvier erratic block white 24 - 27
Optima Optima 113 white 24 - 59
Pinotin - red 21 - 0
Red Elbling Elbling white 18 - 18
Kernling - white 16 - 17
Muscat Ottonel - white 16 - 12
Prior - red 16 - 0
Schönburger - white 16 - 20
Dove black Blue drooping red 16 - 14
Rubinet - red 15 - 13
Helios - white 13 - 0
Jewel - white 13 - 23
Pearl Pearl from Alzey white 13 - 33
sprinkler - white 13 - 42
Albalonga - white 12 - 14
Opaque red - red 12 - 20
Helfensteiner Blue Weinsberger red 12 - 19
Monarch - red 11 - 0
Rondo - red 11 - 10
Saphira - white 11 - 0
Cabertin - red 10 - 0
Rotberger - red 10 - 15
Tempranillo - red 10 - 0
Cabernet Carbon - red 9 - 0
Red Muscat Muscat Blanc, Muscat white 8 - 2
Ehrenbreitsteiner - white 7 - 10
Neronet - red 6 - 0
Bronner - white 5 - 3
Cabernet Carol - red 5 - 0
Hegel - red 5 - 10
Malvasia Frühroter Veltliner, Early red white 5 - 5
Palas - red 5 - 8
Piroso - red 5 - 0
Wild Muscat - red 5 - 0
Merzling - white 4 - 4
Freisamer - white 3 - 4
Hibernal - white 3 - 1
Hölder - white 3 - 6
Blue Burgundy - red 2 - 3
Staufer - white 1 - 1
Villaris - white 1 - 0
André - red - - 5
Arnsburger - white - - 1
Dyer's grape Teinturier du Cher red - - 1
Fontanara - white - - 1
Mariensteiner - white - - 3
Orion - white - - 4
Pearl from Zala Zala Gyöngye white - - 1
Headmaster - white - - 3
Septimer - white - - 2
Silcher - white - - 3
Sirius - white - - 1
other red varieties - red 117 0,1 175
other white varieties - white 239 0,2 256
RED VARIETIES 34.461 33,5 36.825
WHITE VARIETIES 68413 66,5 65.361
TOTAL 102.874 100 102.186

Wine categories / quality levels

In August 2009, the EU wine market regulation came into force with fundamental changes to wine types and quality levels (see Quality system). In Germany, the new designations PGI and PDO were prohibited until the end of 2011. From 2012, the regulation came into force allowing the old traditional designations of Landwein, Qualitätswein and Prädikatswein (with all Prädikat levels) to continue to be used. In addition, the new designations "protected geographical indication" and "protected origin" can be used on the label as an alternative, but not in abbreviated form:

  • Wine without a narrower indication of origin (formerly the now prohibited term table wine)
  • Wine with grape variety and/or vintage indication
  • Wine with a protected geographical indication (PGI) = country wine
  • Wine with protected designation of origin (PDO) = quality wine and Prädikat wine

Wine without indication of variety and/or vintage - German wine

This must be produced exclusively from grapes harvested in Germany and come exclusively from authorised grape varieties. It must have a natural alcohol content of at least 5% vol (44 °Oe) in wine-growing zone A and 6% vol (50 °Oe) in zone B. After any enrichment, the alcohol content must be at least 8.5% vol. in zones A and B. The minimum total acidity expressed in tartaric acid is 3.5 g/litre.

Wine with indication of variety and/or vintage - German wine

Only authorised grape varieties may be used and indicated.

Landwein and/or wine with a protected geographical indication

Only the long text is permitted; the short form "Wein g.g.A." is not permitted. At least 85% of the wine must come from grapes harvested in the region, for example Brandenburger Landwein. Concentration through refrigeration is not permitted. Enrichment of the must before fermentation is permitted. The maximum yield per hectare is 15,000 litres of wine. The wine must be dry or semi-dry in flavour.

Quality wine and/or wine with a protected designation of origin designation of origin

Only the long text is permitted; the short form "Wein g.U." is not permitted. The traditional designation QbA (Qualitätswein bestimmter Anbaugebiete) is still possible (but is hardly used any more). After a positive sensory and analytical test, the official test number is awarded. The wine must have typical characteristics and be free of defects in appearance (colour), smell and taste. It can be used for growing areas, but also for narrower geographical designations (area, Großlage, place name, single vineyard). Vineyard and field names(parcels) that were no longer permitted under the 1971 wine law can be reused under certain circumstances. The wines require product specifications that describe the production (grape varieties, yields, etc.) and the origin-related flavour.

The grapes used must come exclusively from authorised grape varieties of the species Vitis vinifera. They must have been harvested in a single "specified region" and generally processed into quality wine in the specified region. The grape must obtained in the fermentable container must have at least the minimum natural alcoholic strength by volume laid down for each specified region and for each grape variety. The actual alcohol content must be at least 7% vol = 56 g/l and the wine must have a minimum total alcohol content of 9% vol = 71 g/l. The addition of concentrated grape must and cold concentration are prohibited.

Prädikat wines

According to EU law, also a quality wine, as there are officially only the three quality levels mentioned. However, traditional designations may continue to be used, which is also utilised by other countries such as Italy (DOC and DOCG) and Spain (DO and DOCa). According to German (and Austrian) wine law, a Prädikat wine is therefore a higher level of quality wine. There are six types of Prädikat wine: Kabinett, Spätlese, Auslese, Beerenauslese, Trockenbeerenauslese and Eiswein. These must at least fulfil the quality wine criteria. In addition, higher must weights apply (detailed descriptions can be found under the relevant keywords):

At least 67 °Oe to 82 °Oe must weight, depending on the growing region. At least 7% vol. = 56 g/l available alcohol content. At least 9% = 71 g/l minimum total alcohol content.

Late Harvest
At least 76 °Oe to 90 °Oe must weight, depending on the growing region. A "late harvest" and fully ripe grapes are required.

At least 83 °Oe to 100 °Oe must weight, depending on the growing region. All diseased and unripe berries must be removed.

At least 110 °Oe to 128 °Oe must weight, depending on the growing region. Only largely noble rotten or at least overripe grapes may be used. The natural alcohol content must be at least 5.5% vol.

At least 150 °Oe to 154 °Oe must weight, depending on the growing region. Must be pressed largely from grapes with noble rot.

Ice wine
At least 110 °Oe to 128 °Oe must weight (like Beerenauslese). The frozen grapes are pressed and crushed, the ice remains in the marc.

Special types of wine

There are a number of specific designations or wine types with wine law specifications. These are Badisch Rotgold, Classic, Federweißer, Liebfrauenmilch, Rotling, Schieler, Schillerwein, Selection and Weißherbst.

Sparkling wine
A higher quality sparkling wine is labelled "German sparkling wine" and is made from 100% grapes grown in Germany. The designation "Sekt bA" indicates that 100% of the grapes come from a specific growing region.

Organic wine
Production is subject at least to the guidelines of the EU Organic Regulation, as well as the often even stricter rules of organic organisations. The German umbrella organisation is BÖLW (see also in detail under Organic Viticulture).

Wine law regulations

The standard German work on wine law is "Weinrecht" (Walhalla-Verlag), the 2020 edition of which comprises 4,604 pages in four folders plus CD-ROM. It covers the wine law of the EU, Germany and the federal states. Another comprehensive work is the "Wine Law Commentary" by Prof. Dr Hans-Jörg Koch. See also under wine law.

Must weight
There is a minimum must weight or resulting potential alcohol content for each wine quality level (see above). Within the quality levels, a further differentiation is made according to grape variety. In order to do justice to the different climatic conditions, these quantities vary depending on the growing region.

The maximum permitted yields are given in hectolitres per hectare. They are defined responsibly by the competent authorities of the growing regions and vary from region to region and, in the federal state of Rhineland-Palatinate, from quality group to quality group. Regardless of the quality group, these are 80 hl/ha (Saxony), 90 (Baden, Franconia, Saale-Unstrut), 100 (Ahr, Hessische Bergstrasse, Rheingau), 105 (Middle Rhine, Nahe, Palatinate, Rheinhessen) and 110 (Württemberg). In Rhineland-Palatinate (Mosel, Nahe, Pfalz, Rheinhessen) these are 105 for quality wine, 125 for Mosel, 125 for Land and varietal wine, 150 for German wine, and 200 for base wine for the production of sparkling wines or distillates.

Origin / vintage / grape variety
At least 85% of a wine must come from the specified origin, grape variety and vintage. If the foreign content (from a different origin, grape variety or vintage than specified in the designation) reaches the maximum limit of 15%, then a maximum of 10% foreign sweet reserve may be added. This is because the total foreign content, including the sweet reserve, may not exceed 25%. "German wines" must be made from 100% domestically harvested grapes. Under seed law, 87 yield grape varieties (66 of which are listed above), 15 rootstock grape varieties and 12 ornamental grape varieties are authorised. A detailed description with the viticultural characteristics is contained in the "Descriptive Vine Variety List" of the Federal Office of Plant Varieties (see also under variety protection). The indication of varietal purity is only permitted if the wine originates 100% from the specified grape variety.

Sugar content
The residual sugar content is optional on the label. A wine with a maximum of 4 g/l or 9 g/l is considered dry if the total acidity is not more than 2 g/l lower than the residual sugar. At 8 g/l, for example, this requires 6 g/l total acidity. The other grades are semi-dry with 12 g/l or 18 g/l if the total acidity is not more than 10 g/l lower, medium sweet with a higher value than for semi-dry but max. 45 g/l, and sweet with 45 g/l. Terms not relevant under wine law are feinherb, dry Franconian and tart.

Sweetening (increase in residual sugar)
The wine may not be sweetened by more than 4% alcohol by volume. Only grape must designated as a sweet reserve may be used; concentrated grape must and RCGM are prohibited for Landwein, quality wine and Prädikat wine (this is even a restriction of EU law; the reason is to preserve the originality of the wine). If grape must is added to Prädikat wine, it must correspond to the same Prädikat wine level.

Enrichment (increasing the natural alcohol content)
May be carried out on all types of wine (regardless of wine colour and quality level) by a maximum of 2% alcohol content by volume using the approved means. In the past, only sucrose (dried sugar) was authorised for country and quality wines in Germany. However, following a judgement by the European Court of Justice, the German Wine Act was amended in 1989. After a successful application, quality wine b. A. an alcohol content of 15% vol. may not be exceeded. In principle, fortification is not permitted for Prädikat wines.

Institutions and committees

Important institutions, committees, authorities and research institutes Important institutions, bodies, authorities and research institutes that perform research, organising, controlling, publicising or training functions in connection with viticulture are the German Wine Academy, DLG (German Agricultural Society), DWF (German Wine Fund), DWI (German Wine Institute), DWV (German Winegrowers' Association), Freiburg, Geilweilerhof, Geisenheim, Society for the History of Wine, Julius Kühn Institute (Geilweilerhof), VDP (Verband Deutscher Prädikatsweingüter), Weinbauring Franken and Weinsberg (Viticulture Institute).

Influential German wine authors and wine critics include Paula Bosch, Armin Diel, Gerhard Eichelmann, Marcus Hofschuster, Rudolf Knoll, Norbert Pobbig, Jens Priewe, Mario Scheuermann and Eckhard Supp. They contribute to many wine magazines and wine guides such as Der Berliner Weinführer, Busche Winzer & Weingüter, Eichelmann Deutschlands Weine, Gault Millau, Meiningers Weinwelt and wein.plus.

Map: by C. Busch, Hamburg - Own work, CC BY-SA 3.0, Link
Flag: by User:SKopp - Own work, Public domain, Link
Coat of arms: by Karl-Tobias Schwab - Own work, Public domain, Link
Map of growing regions: DWI (German Wine Institute)

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