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Regions

Comprehensive description of all European growing areas, their grape varieties, traditions and legal rules with maps.

Description to Portugal

In ancient times, Phoenicians, Greeks and Romans brought vines to the Iberian Peninsula. Under the long Moorish rule from the 8th to the 12th century, wine growing stagnated, but did not come to a complete standstill despite the ban on alcohol. As in many other countries, the Roman Catholic monastic order of the Cistercians had a decisive influence on viticulture; in the 12th century, they founded 18 monasteries in Portugal. King Dinis (1279-1325) promoted agriculture and viticulture on such a large scale that the proceeds were used to build a merchant fleet, thus creating the basis for the rise to world power. He was therefore given the nickname "Rei lavrador" (King of the peasants). Among the Avis kings, especially Emanuel I (1469-1521), Portugal rose to a leading European trade and maritime power. Henry the Navigator (1394-1460) initiated expeditions along the West African coast. Muscatel and Malvasia grapes were planted on the rediscovered island of Madeira. A flourishing wine trade with England developed.

Portugal - Transport von Portwein auf dem Rio Douro und Portweinglas

Portugal's most famous and best-known wine is undoubtedly port wine. Its great triumphal procession began when the Methuen Treaty was signed between England and Portugal in 1703. This treaty provided for large reductions in customs duties for the import of Portuguese wines. As early as 1756, the famous Prime Minister Marquês de Pombal (1699-1782) decreed exact demarcations for the Douro region. This is one of the very first areas, next to Chianti, to be controlled for its origin. A special role in the port wine trade was played by the Factory House opened in Porto in 1790, where the British factors negotiated and concluded their deals among themselves. With over 50%, Portugal is the world's largest producer of corks, about half of which comes from the province of Alentejo.

In the 19th century, mildew and phylloxera destroyed most of Portugal's vineyards. It was not until 1930 that reconstruction began. After the end of the dictatorship in 1974, the changeover from the production of cheap mass wines to quality products began. Due to the climate, the country is ideal for winegrowing, because the wine-growing northern part of Portugal has abundant rainfall and long, beautiful summers. The soils consist mainly of granite and slate. Viticulture is an extremely important economic factor in Portugal, as around 15% of the population live from it. In 2012, 6.32 million hl of wine were produced from 233,000 hectares of vineyards. White wines are produced to 30% and rosé and red wines to 70%. Among the most famous Portuguese wines are the dessert wines Madeira and Port, as well as Vinho Verde. However, the rosé wine Mateus, created in 1942 by the company Sogrape, founded in the same year, and similar products such as Lancers by the company Fonseca, with about 40% of the export volume, have long since overtaken this position.

List of grape varieties

A special feature are the countless native vines. In the "land of 500 autochthonous grape varieties", these used to be grown mostly as a mixed set. The often identical names or synonyms cause confusion, but DNA analyses are increasingly being used to clarify ancestry. It was not until the 1980s, mainly due to EU regulations on quality wines, that vineyards were started to be planted with pure grape varieties. Many of the predominantly indigenous grape varieties are also found in neighbouring Spain(some with other names). With one exception (Syrah), there is no international variety among the first 20 in the table. The grape variety table 2010:

Grape variety Colour Synonyms or name in Portugal Hectare
Tempranillo red Aragonez, Tinta Roriz, Tinta Santiago 16.706
French Quarter red former Touriga Francesa 11.582
Castelão Fritters red Castelão, João Santarém 11.086
National Touriga red Carabuñera, Mortagua, Touriga Fina 10.175
Fernão Pires white Maria Gomes, Molinha 9.376
Trincadeira Preta red Tinta Amarela, Trincadeira 9.246
Síria white Códega, Crato Branco, Roupeiro 7.145
Tinta Barroca red Boca de Mina, Tinta Barocca 5.939
Arinto white Arinto de Bucelas, Pedernã 4.446
Calls red Rifete, Rufeta, Tinta Pinheira 4.183
Baga red Baga de Louro, Moreto 4.108
Marufo red Brujidera, Mourisco 4.008
Syrah red - 3.501
Loureiro white Branco Redondos, Loureira, Marqués 3.469
Alicante Henri Bouschet red - 3.322
Trousseau Noir red Bastardinho, Bastardo 3.149
Palomino white Listrão, Malvasia Rei, Palomino Fino 3.033
Malvasia fina white Arinto do Dão, Assario, Boal, Gual 2.930
Vinhão red Sousão, Espadeiro Basto 2.482
Mencía red Jaen, Jaen du Dão, Loureiro Tinto 2.454
Alvarinho white Albariño, Azal Blanco 1.989
Cabernet sauvignon red - 1.671
Tinta Carvalha red Preto Gordo, Tinta Carvalha du Douro 1.311
Rabigato white Preto Gordo, Tinta Carvalha du Douro 1.273
Antão Vaz white Antonio Vaz 1.252
Caladoc red - 1.197
Vital white Boal Bonifacio, Malvasia Corada 1.182
Alfrocheiro red Albarín Negro, Tinta Bastardinha 1.180
Trajadura white Treixadura (Spain), Trajadura Branca 1.171
Diagalves white Carnal, Dependura, Diego Alves 1.156
Azalea branco white Azal, Azal da Lixa, Carvalha 1.072
Damaschino white Alicante Branco 1.037
Malvasia preta red Moreto, Mureto, Pinheira Roxa 1.003
Bical white Bical de Bairrada, Borrado das Moscas 924
Rabo de Ovelha white Rabigato, Rabo de Ovelha de Cola Res 908
Moreto do Alentejo red Moreto, Morito 900
Chardonnay white - 803
Merlot red - 772
Santarena red Santareno 739
Avesso white Bornal, Bornão, Borracal Branco 685
Seara Nova white - 681
Negra minor red Mollar, Saborinho, Tinta de Madeira 676
Muscat d'Alexandria white - 647
Côdega de Larinho white Côdega do Larinho 629
Gouveio Real white - 582


Wine law

In August 2009, the EU wine market regulation came into force with fundamental changes to wine designations and quality grades. There are the following new designations and quality levels (see also detailed information under quality system). The traditional terms Vinho Regional and DOC are still possible alternatively:

Vinho: wines without a specific designation of origin. This lowest quality level is mostly blends from different growing regions.

IGP or IG (Indicação Geográfica Protegida) or Vinho Regional
A country wine with a protected geographical indication. The regulations contain certain criteria such as grape variety (85% of the grapes must come from the area) and alcohol content, but offer a relatively wide scope. There are 14 country wine areas; see the list below.

IPR (Indicacão de Proveniencia Regulamentada)
The former preliminary stage to DOC was abandoned in 2011.

DOP (Denominação de Origem Protegida) or DOC (Denominacão de origem controlada)
A quality wine with a protected designation of origin. The regulations specify the grape varieties, minimum ageing periods in barrels and bottle, minimum values for alcohol content, acidity and total extract (dry extract), as well as colour and aroma. A sensory and analytical test must be carried out before marketing. There are about 30 quality wine areas; see the list below.

Other designations: For the age or, as regards the ageing of a wine, there are the designations Verde (green, no ageing), Maduro (old or aged in cask), Reserva (red wines three years old, one of which is bottled, white wines one year old, six months of which is bottled), Garrafeira (like Reserva and higher alcohol content) and Velho (red wine three, white wine two years old). The degrees of sweetness indicated on the bottle label are seco = dry, meio seco = semi-dry, meio doce = semi-sweet and doce (also adamado, suave) = sweet.

Wine growing areas

The following is a list of IGP and DOP areas alphabetically by Portuguese regions (well-known wineries are listed there)

Alentejo

Algarve

Azores

  • Biscoitos
  • Graciosa
  • Pico

Beiras

Douro

Extremadura

Madeira

Península de Setúbal - formerly Terras do Sado (IGP)

Tejo (formerly Ribatejo)

Trás-os-Montes

Vinho Verde

Portugal - Karte mit Weinbaugebieten

Douro: By Thomas Istvan Seibel; from Wikipedia CC BY-SA 3.0, Link
Port wine glass: By Jon Sullivan, Gemeinfrei, Link
Portugal Map: ViniPortugal

In this section you will find
currently 141,075 Wines and 22,913 Producers, including 2,211 classified producers.
Rating system Their sources in Wine Guide Wine Samples

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