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Comprehensive description of all European growing areas, their grape varieties, traditions and legal rules with maps.

Description to Slovakia

In 1993, the independent states of Slovakia and the Czech Republic were formed from the former entire state of Czechoslovakia. Wine-growing has a common history that goes back to the Celts. The wine-growing regions of Slovakia are mainly located in the south on the borders to Austria and Hungary. Along these borders, the vineyards form a strip of land about 60 kilometres long and are located on the northern edge of the European wine-growing area, largely along the Danube tributaries Hron (Gran), Nitra (Neutra) and Váh (Váh) around the capital Bratislava (Pressburg). The climate is continental with hot summers and cool winters with moderate rainfall. In 2012, the area under vines covered 20,000 hectares, of which 384,000 hl of wine were produced. Two-thirds of the area produces white wines and one-third red wines. Well-known vineyards are Gbelce, Hlohovec, Hurbanovo, Matysák, Pavelka, Topolcany and Trnava. Apart from exports to the Czech Republic, most of the wine is consumed in the country. The grape variety table 2010:

Grape variety Colour Synonyms or Slovakian name Hectare
Grüner Veltliner white Veltlínske Zelené 2.091
white Rizling Vlašský 1.655
red Frankovka Modrá 1.378
Saint Laurent red Svätovavrinecké 939
Müller-Thurgau white - 932
Riesling white Rizling Rýnsky 605
Cabernet Sauvignon red - 570
Pinot blanc white Burgundské Biele, Rulandské Biele 523
Chardonnay white - 310
Gewürztraminer / Traminer white Tramín Červený 265
Furmint white - 248
Odessky Cherny red - 236
Fetească Regală white Pesecká Leánka 231
Irsai Olive white Irsay Oliver 227
Fetească Albă white Dievcie Hrozno 219
André red - 211
Pinot gris white Burgundy Sivé, Rulandské Sivé 211
Blanc sauvignon white Sauvignon 208
Early Red Veltliner white Veltlínske Červené Skoré 195
Muskát Moravský white MOPR, Moravian nutmeg 163
Hárslevelü white Lipovina 141
Devín white - 133
Silvaner (Green Silvaner) white Silvánske Zelené 117
Zweigelt red - 116
Blue Portuguese red Modrý Portugal, Portugalské Modré 92
Dunaj red - 62
Nutmeg Ottonel white Muscát Ottonel 48
Muscat Blanc / Muscat Plate white Muškát Žltý 48
Neronet red - 39
Pálava white - 32
Aurelius white - 26
Breslava white Chrtc x St M Dc Alc 10/28 10
Neuburger white Neuburské 9
Bouvier white Bouvierovo Hrozno 6
Noria white - 2
Mília red - 1
Red Silvaner / Silvaner red Silvanské Cervené ?
Csaba Gyöngye white Cabianska Perla ?
Ezerjó white - ?
Leányka white - ?
Lena white - ?
? Pinot Noir ? red Burgundy Modré, Rulandské Modré ?
Rotgipfler white Slatzki Zelenac ?
Red White Veltliner white Veltlínske Červenobiele ?
Veritas white - ?
Vrboska white - ?


Well-known wine-growing villages are Hurbanovo, Levice, Modra (with viticulture school), Nitra, Nove Zamky, Pezinok, Raca, Sahy, Sered, Sobota, Trnava and Zlaté Moravce. A special feature is the small area at the very east, which borders directly on the Hungarian Tokaj-Hegyalja. Here, in the three (former Hungarian) villages of Kistoronya, Szõlõske and the Slovakian part of Sátoraljaújhely, Tokaj-style wine is produced. After years of dispute, the two countries finally agreed in early 2003 that these wines produced within the 172-hectare area could bear the Tokaji designation of origin (Hungary refused to do so for four other municipalities claimed by Slovakia).

Wine categories: As in Austria and Germany, the wine categories are based on the must weight of the grapes; 1 °NM (Normalizovaný Muštomer) = 1 kg sugar per 100 l must. In August 2009, the EU wine market regulation became valid for all member countries with fundamental changes in wine designations and quality levels. There are the following new denominations or quality grades (see also in detail under quality system):

  • Víno (formerly ) = wine
  • CZO (Chráněné Zeměpisné Označeni) = Regionálne Víno or local wine
  • ??? (not known) = Akostné Víno or quality wine (at least 16 °NM, yield limits per area)

Predicate wines (Akostné Víno s prívlastkom)

  • Kabinetné = (fully ripe grapes, zum. 19 °NM)
  • Neskorý zber = Spätlese (fully ripe, zum. 21 °NM)
  • Výber z hrozna = (overripe, selected, zum. 23 °NM)
  • Bobuľový výber = Beerenauslese (overripe, selected, to. 26 °NM)
  • Hrozienkový výber = Trockenbeerenauslese (overripe, selected, zum. 28 °NM)
  • Cibébový výber = Trockenbeerenauslese(botrytised grapes, otherwise as before)
  • L'adový zber = ice wine (harvested at least at minus 7 °Celsius, at 27 °NM)
  • Slamové Víno = straw wine (dried for 3 months on reed mats, for 27 °NM)

Tokay (see there the provisions which also apply to Slovakia)

  • Esencia = Eszencia (zum. 450 g/l sugar, zum. 50 g/l total extract, 3 years maturation)
  • Forditáš = Forditás (2 years maturing, of which 1 wooden barrel)
  • Mášláš = Máslás (2 years maturing, of which 1 wooden barrel)
  • Samorodné = Szamorodni (2 years maturing, of which 1 wooden barrel)
  • Výber = Aszú / outbreak (3 to 6 Putňový, 3 years maturing, 2 years of which in wooden barrels)
  • Výberová Esencia = Aszú-Eszencia (for 180 g/l sugar, 3 years maturing, dav. 2 wood)

Specific wine descriptions/types

  • Mladé Víno = young wine (bottled before the end of the harvest year)
  • Archívne Víno = archival wine (for 3 years maturation)
  • Panenská úroda = virgin wine (grapes from the first harvest after vine planting)
  • Pestovateľský Sparkling wine =
  • Sekt vinohradníckej oblasti / Sekt V.O. = sparkling wine from a specific wine region

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