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Description to Slovakia

The Republic of Slovakia, with its capital Bratislava, covers an area of 49,035 km² in Central Europe. It borders Austria to the west, the Czech Republic and Poland to the north, Ukraine to the east and Hungary to the south. In 1993, the former state of Czechoslovakia was peacefully divided into two independent states, Slovakia and the Czech Republic. Viticulture has a common history dating back to the Celts.

Slowakei - Landkarte

Wine-growing regions

The wine-growing regions are mainly located in the south on the borders with Austria and Hungary. The vineyards form a 60 kilometre long strip along these borders and are mostly located on the Danube tributaries Hron (Gran), Nitra (Neutra) and Váh (Waag) around the capital Bratislava (Pressburg). The climate is continental with hot summers and cool winters with moderate rainfall. Well-known wine-growing communities are Hurbanovo, Levice, Modra (with a wine-growing school), Nitra, Nove Zamky, Pezinok, Raca, Sahy, Sered, Sobota, Trnava and Zlaté Moravce.

A speciality is the small region in the far east, which borders directly on the Hungarian Tokaj-Hegyalja. Here, in the three (formerly Hungarian) villages of Kistoronya, Szõlõske and the Slovakian part of Sátoraljaújhely, a Tokaj-style wine is produced. After years of disputes, the two countries finally agreed at the beginning of 2003 that these wines produced within the 172-hectare area may bear the designation of origin Tokaji (Tokaj).

List of grape varieties

In 2022, the vineyards covered 14,364 hectares and the wine production volume was 332,000 hectolitres. Two thirds are white wines and one third red wines. Well-known wineries are Gbelce, Hlohovec, Hurbanovo, Matysák, Pavelka, Topolcany and Trnava. Apart from exports to the Czech Republic, the majority is consumed in the country. The range of gra pe varieties:

Grape variety


Synonyms or Slovakian name


Grüner Veltliner white Veltlínske Zelené 2.091
Welsh Riesling white Rizling Vlašský 1.655
Blaufränkisch red Frankovka Modrá 1.378
St. Laurent red Svätovavrinecké 939
Müller-Thurgau white - 932
Riesling white Rizling Rýnsky 605
Cabernet Sauvignon red - 570
Pinot Blanc white Burgundské Biele, Rulandské Biele 523
Chardonnay white - 310
Gewürztraminer / Traminer white Tramín Červený 265
Furmint white - 248
Odessky Cherny red - 236
Fetească shelf white Pesecká Leánka 231
Irsai Olivér white Irsay Oliver 227
Fetească Albă white Dievcie Hrozno 219
André red - 211
Pinot Gris white Burgundské Sivé, Rulandské Sivé 211
Sauvignon Blanc white Sauvignon 208
Frühroter Veltliner white Veltlínske Červené Skoré 195
Muskát Moravský white MOPR, Moravian Muscat 163
Hárslevelű white Lipovina 141
Děvín white - 133
Silvaner (Grüner Silvaner) white Silvánske Zelené 117
Zweigelt red - 116
Blauer Portugieser red Modrý Portugal, Portugalské Modré 92
Dunaj red - 62
Muscat Ottonel white Muscat Ottonel 48
Muscat Blanc / Muscat white Muškát Žltý 48
Neronet red - 39
Pálava white - 32
Aurelius white - 26
Breslava white Chrtc x St M Dc Alc 10/28 10
Neuburger white Neuburské 9
Bouvier white Bouvierovo Hrozno 6
Noria white - 2
Mília red - 1
Roter Silvaner / Silvaner red Silvánske Cervené ?
Csaba Gyöngye white Cabianska Perla ?
Ezerjó white - ?
Leányka white - ?
Lena white - ?
Pinot Noir red Burgundské Modré, Rulandské Modré ?
Rotgipfler white Slatzki Zelenac ?
Red and white Veltliner white Veltlínske Červenobiele ?
Veritas white - ?
Vrboska white - ?

Wine categories

As in Austria and Germany, the wine categories are based on the must weight of the grapes; 1 °NM (Normalizovaný Muštomer) = 1 kg of sugar per 100 litres of must. In August 2009, the EU wine market regulation came into force for all member states with fundamental changes to wine designations and quality levels. The following new designations and quality levels have been introduced (see also details under Quality System):

  • Víno (formerly table wine) = wine
  • CZO (Chráněné Zeměpisné Označeni) = Regionálne Víno or country wine
  • DSC (Districtus Slovakia Controlatus) = Akostné Víno or quality wine (at least 16 °NM, yield limits per region)

Prädikat wines (Akostné Víno s prívlastkom)

  • Kabinetné = Kabinett (fully ripe grapes, up to 19 °NM)
  • Neskorý zber = late harvest (fully ripe, to 21 °NM)
  • Výber z hrozna = Auslese (overripe, selected, to 23 °NM)
  • Bobuľový výber = Beerenauslese (overripe, selected, to 26 °NM)
  • Hrozienkový výber = Trockenbeerenauslese (overripe, selected, to 28 °NM)
  • Cibébový výber = Trockenbeerenauslese (botrytised grapes, otherwise as before)
  • L'adové víno = Ice wine (harvested at a minimum of minus 7 °Celsius, at 27 °NM)
  • Slamové víno = straw wine (dried on reed mats for 3 months, at 27 °NM)

Tokaj (see the regulations there, which also apply to Slovakia)

  • Esencia = Eszencia (zum. 450 g/l sugar, zum. 50 g/l total extract, 3 years maturation)
  • Forditáš = Fordítás (2 years maturation, 1 of which in wooden barrels)
  • Mášláš = Máslás (2 years maturation, including 1 wooden barrel)
  • Samorodné = Szamorodni (2 years maturation, including 1 wooden barrel)
  • Výber = Aszú / Ausbruch (3 to 6 Putňový, 3 years maturation, of which 2 years in wooden barrels)
  • Výberová Esencia = Aszú-Eszencia (approx. 180 g/l sugar, 3 years ageing, including 2 years in wood)

Special wine designations/types

  • Mladé Víno = young wine (bottled before the end of the vintage year)
  • Archívne Víno = archive wine (for 3 years maturation)
  • Panenská úroda = young wine (grapes from the first harvest after planting the vines)
  • Pestovateľský sparkling wine = vintner's sparkling wine
  • Sekt vinohradníckej oblasti / Sekt V.O. = sparkling wine from a specific wine-growing region

Map: © Goruma

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