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Comprehensive description of all European growing areas, their grape varieties, traditions and legal rules with maps.

Description to Slovakia

In 1993, the independent states of Slovakia and the Czech Republic were formed from the former state of Czechoslovakia. Viticulture has a common history that goes back to the Celts. Slovakia's wine-growing areas are mainly located in the south on the borders with Austria and Hungary. The vineyards form a strip about 60 kilometres long along these borders and lie on the northern edge of the European wine-growing area largely along the Danube tributaries Hron (Gran), Nitra (Neutra) and Váh (Waag) around the capital Bratislava (Pressburg). The climate is continental with hot summers and cool winters with moderate rainfall. In 2012, the vineyard area covered 20,000 hectares, of which 384,000 hl of wine were produced. Two thirds are white wines and one third red wines. Well-known wineries are Gbelce, Hlohovec, Hurbanovo, Matysák, Pavelka, Topolcany and Trnava. Apart from exports to the Czech Republic, the majority is consumed in the country. The grape variety list 2010:

Grape variety Colour Synonyms or Slovak name Hectare
Grüner Veltliner white Veltlínske Zelené 2.091
Welschriesling white Rizling Vlašský 1.655
Blaufränkisch red Frankovka Modrá 1.378
St. Laurent red Svätovavrinecké 939
Müller-Thurgau white - 932
Riesling white Rizling Rýnsky 605
Cabernet Sauvignon red - 570
Pinot Blanc white Burgundské Biele, Rulandské Biele 523
Chardonnay white - 310
Gewürztraminer / Traminer white Tramín Červený 265
Furmint white - 248
Odessky Cherny red - 236
Fetească Shelfă white Pesecká Leánka 231
Irsai Olivér white Irsay Oliver 227
Fetească Albă white Dievcie Hrozno 219
André red - 211
Pinot Gris white Burgundy Sivé, Rulandské Sivé 211
Sauvignon Blanc white Sauvignon 208
Frühroter Veltliner white Veltlínske Červené Skoré 195
Muskát Moravský white MOPR, Moravian Muscat 163
Hárslevelű white Lipovina 141
Devín white - 133
Silvaner (Green Silvaner) white Silvánske Zelené 117
Zweigelt red - 116
Blue Portugieser red Modrý Portugal, Portugalské Modré 92
Dunaj red - 62
Muscat Ottonel white Muscat Ottonel 48
Muscat Blanc / Muscat white Muškát Žltý 48
Neronet red - 39
Pálava white - 32
Aurelius white - 26
Breslava white Chrtc x St M Dc Alc 10/28 10
Neuburg white Neuburské 9
Bouvier white Bouvierovo Hrozno 6
Noria white - 2
Mília red - 1
Red Silvaner / Silvaner red Silvánske Cervené ?
Csaba Gyöngye white Cabianska Perla ?
Ezerjó white - ?
Leányka white - ?
Lena white - ?
Pinot Noir red Burgundy Modré, Rulandské Modré ?
Rotgipfler white Slatzki Zelenac ?
Rotwhite Veltliner white Veltlínske Červenobiele ?
Veritas white - ?
Vrboska white - ?

Well-known wine-growing communities are Hurbanovo, Levice, Modra (with a wine-growing school), Nitra, Nove Zamky, Pezinok, Raca, Sahy, Sered, Sobota, Trnava and Zlaté Moravce. A special feature is the small area in the far east, which borders directly on the Hungarian Tokaj-Hegyalja. Here, in the three (formerly Hungarian) villages of Kistoronya, Szõlõske and the Slovakian part of Sátoraljaújhely, a Tokaj-style wine is produced. After years of disputes, the two countries finally agreed in early 2003 that these wines produced within the 172-hectare area could bear the Tokaji designation of origin (Hungary refused to do so for four other municipalities claimed by Slovakia).

Wine categories: As in Austria and Germany, the wine categories are based on the must weight of the grapes; 1 °NM (Normalizovaný Muštomer) = 1 kg sugar per 100 l must. In August 2009, the EU wine market regulation became valid for all member countries with fundamental changes to the wine designations and quality levels. There are the following new designations or quality levels (see also in detail under Quality System):

  • Víno (formerly table wine) = wine
  • CZO (Chráněné Zeměpisné Označeni) = Regionálne Víno or country wine.
  • DSC (Districtus Slovakia Controlatus) = Akostné Víno or quality wine (at least 16 °NM, yield limits per region).

Predicate wines (Akostné Víno s prívlastkom)

  • Kabinetné = Kabinett (fully ripe grapes, at least 19 °NM)
  • Neskorý zber = late harvest (fully ripe, to. 21 °NM)
  • Výber z hrozna = Auslese (overripe, selected, to. 23 °NM)
  • Bobuľový výber = Beerenauslese (overripe, selected, to. 26 °NM)
  • Hrozienkový výber = Trockenbeerenauslese (overripe, selected, to. 28 °NM)
  • Cibébový výber = Trockenbeerenauslese (botrytised grapes, otherwise as before)
  • L'adové víno = Ice wine (harvested at least minus 7 °Celsius, to. 27 °NM)
  • Slamové víno = straw wine (dried on reed mats for 3 months, 27 °NM)

Tokaj (see there the regulations, which are also valid for Slovakia)

  • Esencia = Eszencia (to. 450 g/l sugar, to. 50 g/l total extract, 3 years maturing)
  • Forditáš = Fordítás (2 years maturation, of which 1 wooden barrel)
  • Mášláš = Máslás (2 years maturation, of which 1 wooden barrel)
  • Samorodné = Szamorodni (2 years ageing, of which 1 wooden barrel)
  • Výber = Aszú / Ausbruch (3 to 6 Putňový, 3 years maturation, of which 2 year wooden barrel).
  • Výberová Esencia = Aszú-Eszencia (to. 180 g/l sugar, 3 years maturation, of which 2 wood).

Special wine appellations/types

  • Mladé Víno = young wine (bottled before the end of the vintage year)
  • Archívne Víno = archive wine (to. 3 years maturation)
  • Panenská úroda = young wine (grapes from the first harvest after vine planting)
  • Pestovateľský sparkling wine = vintner' s sparkling wine
  • Sekt vinohradníckej oblasti / sparkling wine V.O. = sparkling wine from specific wine-growing region
In this section you will find
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