The former Yugoslav state of Bosna i Hercegovina became independent in 1992. Organised viticulture began under the rule of the Habsburgs at the end of the 19th century. In 1886 the Wine and Fruit Growing Office was established in Gnojnice. The wines were very popular at the Viennese court, therefore these vineyards are still called "imperial vineyards". A moderate continental climate prevails with hot summers and dry cold winters.
In 2012 the vineyards covered 6,000 hectares, of which 56,000 hectolitres of wine were produced. They are located on the coast and north of Dubrovnik (Croatia) mainly around the cities of Citluk, Caoljina, Stolac and Mostar. The quantitatively dominant varieties are the two autochthonous Žilavka (white with 60%) and Blatina (red with 35%). The remaining varieties are Cabernet Sauvignon, Krkosija, Plavac Mali and Syrah. The most famous area is Mostar (Old Bridge), which used to be the Islamic wine centre of Herzegovina. However, it was almost completely destroyed during the civil war of the 1990s.
The most important wineries or producers are Hercegovina Vino, Podrum Andrija, Stolac, Vinarija Ljubuski and Vinarija Zadro. A well-known wine is "Kameno Vino", which comes from an artificially irrigated vineyard in the desert-like Neretwa Valley. The speciality "Samotok" is a light red wine made without pressing from the must. The classification of the wines is done by organoleptic evaluations with a 20-point system and analytical tests. In the three-level system, wines with geographical origin must achieve at least 14 points, quality wines with geographical origin at least 16 and top qualities at least 18 points.