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Description to Sardinia

The region (Ital. Sardegna) with the capital Cagliari is the second largest island in the Mediterranean after Sicily. Geologically, it is the oldest part of Italy and was once connected to the mainland. It is divided into the four provinces of Sassari in the northwest, Oristano in the west, Cagliari in the south and Nuoro in the east. More than 3,000 years ago, the prehistoric Sardinians dragged huge stones to their living places, worked them with primitive tools and piled them on top of each other. These "Nuraghi" scattered all over the island are the Sardinian landmark and also gave the name to the autochthonous grape variety Nuragus. The Sardinians were already cultivating wine in the 9th century BC, having learned this art from the Phoenicians. Through the varied history under the influence of many peoples such as Carthaginians, Romans, Vandals, Byzantines, Muslims, Pisans and Genoese, a diverse range of viticulture developed here. The Spaniards in particular brought many grape varieties with them from the 13th century onwards, and this influenced the distinctiveness of the wine types over the centuries. In the past, mainly grape varieties of Spanish origin were used to produce high-alcohol, fortified dessert wines similar to sherry or port. Even today, fortified, sweet Liquoroso wines make up a considerable proportion.

Sardinien - Rebflächen

Soil types and climate

Sardinia is 85% mountainous and upland; viticulture is mainly practised in the gently rolling Campidano plain between Cagliari and Oristano and in the Alghero plain. The vineyards cover around 26,700 hectares. Surrounded by the sea, the climate here is very mild and Mediterranean. The southern location in the Mediterranean ensures abundant sunshine. Particularly on the south coast, there is also drought, which is why artificial irrigation is forced. Temperatures vary greatly. The cooler north produces mainly fresh, fruity white wines; the warm south and west sides offer good conditions for red, white and dessert wines. The permissible yield limits are relatively high compared to other regions. Two-thirds are red wines and one-third white. Production is largely dominated by a few large winegrowers' cooperatives (Cantina Sociale). The largest wine trading house is Sella & Mosca.

Grape varieties

The most important white wine varieties are Chardonnay, Malvasia di Sardegna (Malvasia di Lipari), Moscato Bianco (Muscat Blanc), Malvasia di Lipari, Nasco, Nuragus, Nuragus Arrubiu, Nuragus Moscadeddu, Sauvignon (Sauvignon Blanc), Semidano, Torbato, Trebbiano Romagnolo, Trebbiano Toscano and Vermentino. The main red wine varieties are Bovale Grande or Bovale di Spagna or Carignan (Mazuelo), Bovale Sardo or Cagnulari (Graciano), Cabernet Franc, Cabernet Sauvignon, Cannonau (Garnacha Tinta), Carcajolo Nero (Parraleta), Carmenère, Girò, Merlot, Monica (Monica Nera), Niedda Mannu (Pascale) and Sangiovese. The vines are raised especially in the plains in the traditional bush style Albarello (Gobelet).

IGT, DOC and DOCG areas

The IGT (country wines) and DOC and DOCG (quality wines) areas:

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